Recent & potential biomaterials

Biomaterials act as scaffolds for tissue engineering and promote the process of formation of new tissues & organ regeneration. Also leads to improved quality & function of the regenerated tissues.

This multi-disciplinary approach using nature biology, engineering techniques & clinical sciences is so very important for man and animals.

Bioscaffold is defined as:

A naturally derived or artificial structure, implanted in the body, on which tissue grows in the form of a missing or damaged organ etc.; the process being called tissue engineering.

{what remains is the use of bioscaffolds as drug delivery systems}

Tissue engineering builds an interface between biomaterials & biocompatibility & integrate cells, natural or synthetic scaffolds allowing specific signals to create new cells.

{the electrical signals can also be effected due to conduction properties of some biomaterials.}

People also ask ?

Scaffolds & NanoMaterials:

  • Incorporating nanomaterials enhances the quality & function of regenerated tissues.

  • nano materials possess biomimetic abilities & appropriate physicochemical properties. Nanomaterials improve adhesion, and proliferation & allow cell differentiation leading to tissue regeneration.

  • In craniofacial tissue engineering, natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics, composite materials & electrospun nanofibers are used.

  • In bone/cartilage tissue engineering, synthetic & natural polymers are used to due their biodegradability & ease of fabrication.

Some Bone Forming Materials & Nanoceramics:

  • Some materials for excellent bone formation include nanofibres synthetic and natural polymer scaffolds of electrospun polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(plga), polyvinyl alcohol, collagen etc.

  • nanoceramicsare known to be useful as bone substitutes, coatings & fillers due to their dimensional similarity to bone/cartilage tissue and unique surface properties, like surface topography, large surface area, surface chemistry, surface wettability & surface energy.

Hydroxyapatite (HAP) & Nano Hydroxyapatite (NHAP):

  • Osteoblast adhesion & function. Nhap also improves cell attachment  & mineralization. Thus nhap is used clinically due to its bioactivity.

  • other nano sized ceramics materials include alumina, zinc oxide & titania which increase osteoblast adhesion significantly.

  • nhap with collagen or chitosan scaffolds are immensely important for bone repair. These hydrogels swell in aqueous medium & permit transport of enzymes & nutrients to & fro of the supporting ceramic scaffolds. Addition of nano copper or zinc allows increased swelling & only some anti-bacterial activity.

Nano Calcium Sulcium Sulfate (NCS) & Scaffolds:

  • Scaffolds formed from nano calcium sulfate (ncs) or nhap with alginates have a porous structure which promotes osteoblast cell attachment & growth.

  • nhap as well as bioactive glass and ncs can be further fabricated with materials such as chitosan and alginate to modify the porosity and growth factor delivery properties of the nanoscaffold for a more optimal functional form designed for a particular clinical procedure

  • In development of 3d scaffolds with proper surface morphology for tissue engineering applications, nhap with plga or hyaluronic acid is important. These composites have excellent biocompatibility & mechanical properties. These allow bone & tooth-formation.