Fullerenes, a captivating class of carbon allotropes, were serendipitously synthesized in 1985. These remarkable molecules consist of carbon atoms intricately connected to form closed or partially closed mesh structures. 

Let’s delve into the intriguing world of fullerenes and explore their unique properties.

1. Fullerene Structure: A Mesh of Carbon Atoms

  • Definition: Fullerenes are molecular cages composed of carbon atoms arranged in fused rings. These structures can take various forms, including hollow spheres, ellipsoids, and tube-like shapes.

  • Carbon Connectivity: The carbon atoms in fullerenes are linked by single and double bonds, creating intricate networks.

  • Shapes: Fullerenes exhibit diverse geometries, from spherical to elongated forms.

2. Buckminsterfullerene (C60): The Soccer Ball Molecule

  1. Empirical Formula: Fullerenes are denoted by the empirical formula Cn, where n represents the number of carbon atoms.

  2. Buckminsterfullerene (C60): The most famous fullerene, C60, resembles a soccer ball due to its cage-like structure of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. It is affectionately known as “Buckyball.”

3. Enclosed Fullerenes: The Bucky Balls

  • C80 Fullerenes: When 80 carbon atoms connect, they form enclosed fullerenes known as C80. These molecules strikingly resemble footballs.

  • Unique Properties: Enclosed fullerenes exhibit intriguing properties, making them a subject of intense research.

In summary, fullerenes, especially the iconic C60, continue to captivate scientists and hold promise for applications in materials science, electronics, and nanotechnology. 

Their fascinating structures and properties make them true marvels of carbon chemistry.

Some facts about Fullerene:

Fullerene is the only known allotrope of carbon that shows solubility at room temperature in organic solvents like toluene, 1,2,3 trichloropropane, monochlorobenzene etc. In carbon disulfide the solubility of C60 is known to be 8 g/L whereas in 1-chloronaphtahlene its 51 g/L.
C60(OH)24 , Fullerenol, is soluble in water.
Pure solutions of Buckminsterfullerene have a deep purple color, on the other hand, those of C70 have a reddish brown color. Color of solutions vary from C76 to C84.

Actually C60 can be usually crystallized from benzene below 300C & as a matter of fact affords a triclinic solid solvate of C60.4C6H5, however, above 300C the solvate disappears subsequently.

AIF 7 – Technical Fullerene


Properties AIF 7
Appearance Fine black powder
Extractable by toluene (Fullerene) (HPLC) (%) 6 to 8

Mixed Fullerene (AIMIX)


Properties AIMIX
Appearance Dark grey to black crystals
C60 (HPLC) (%) 70 (+/-5)
C70 (HPLC) (%) 30 (+/-5)
FULLERENE - A Versatile Carbon Allotrope | https://allindiametal.com/fullerenes/

Fullerenol, polyhydroxylated derivative of Fullerene, being demonstrably water-soluble allotrope of Carbon shows bioactivity. Fullerenes & their derivatives have important applications in diverse fields of physics, chemistry, nanobiotechnology, pharmacology, pharmaceuticals, foods & medicine. Likewise, many more areas, simply remain to be explored.

Bacteria-based & enzyme-based assays, allows study of mechanisms of toxic effects at cellular & molecular levels, respectively. By all means, the anti-oxidant activity of Fullerenols is exhibited in presence of organic & inorganic intoxicants (pollutants, industrial wastewaters etc.).

The Fullerenol, additionally, decrease cellular & biochemical toxicities at ultralow concentrations,
(approx. 10-17-10-5 g/L) in a non-dependent way. Ordinarily, Fullerenol has catalytic activity at about 10−8 g/L concentrations in cellular NADH-dependent enzymatic reactions. This certainly contributes to its anti-oxidant efficacy.

Antioxidant effect of highly diluted Fullerenol solutions on bacterial cells has been simply attributed to hormesis phenomenon coupled with the detoxification which was concerned with stimulation of adaptive cellular response under low-dose exposures. 


Reactions & Mechanism of activity:


Like fullerenes, C60, Fullerenol, simply, behaved like electron deficient agents & readily reacted with electron rich species . So then this makes Fullerenols are highly effective catalysts in chemistry & biology. These Fullerenols are an example of amphipathic nature. Hydroxy, -OH, groups, as a rule, impart water solubility in this case & on the other hand, the fullerene skeleton allows lipid solubility & the more the number of –OH groups, the higher the solubility in water.
Hydrophilicity allows scavenging of free radicals, providing an alternative to current medicinal agents in fields of treatment of cancer, neural disease, radiobiology etc.
Biological effects of Fullerenol encompasses cell protection, drug transport & neutralization of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) . Maximum activity is exhibited by С60(ОН)18–24.

Fullerenol (AIFOL)

Lubricants, Coatings, Paints: For Novel classes of polymers with mechanical, optical, electrical & magnetic properties; new classes for anti-friction coating & lubricants, including those based on fluorine-containing fullerene compounds. Improvised properties in solid lubricants, composite coating & Intumescent paints.

Electrical Engineering & Electronics: Materials with magnetic & superconducting properties; Photographic materials & above all materials for converting electrical energy into light.

Chemistry: Newer chemical synthesis & catalysis

Medicine, Pharmacology & Beauty products: Neurobiology, virology, immunology, allergology. etc. (Novel means of delivery, biologically active substances, medicines, sorbents (including for hemosorption), protective films, health & beauty products (cosmetics) as an anti-oxidant.

Construction: Structural materials (including concrete) with specified mechanical & acoustic properties & heavy-duty protective films for various objects.

Optics: Electronic and optical devices based on the use of fullerenes or materials based on them, lasers & optical limiters.

Ecology: Sorbents: exhaust gas purification, water purification & capsules making for the safe disposal of radioactive waste.

Energy: As new types of fuels & fuel additives, environmentally friendly sources of electricity, as well as hydrogen batteries, solar energy converters.

Materials: In addition, improved characteristics of various materials is achieved – for example- rubbers, metals, polymers.

Food Industry: Sorbents: Purification of wine & vodka products & on the other hand, they are used as an antioxidant additive to edible oils, like olive oils & fats & other food products.


Fullerene surely & in relation to derivatives:


Now, in the first place, Fullerenes are electrical insulators, however, when crystallized with alkali earth metals the product can be especially conducting or superconducting.

Furthermore, these fullerenes have been used for biomedical applications like MRI contrast media, X-ray imaging, photodynamic therapy (PDT), & drug & gene delivery systems.

C60 can be functionalized with amino acids (like L-phenylalanine, L-arginine etc.), or vitamins (like Folic acid) etc. Then, therefore, increases their solubility & this is why it allows them to reach to cancer cells which are otherwise difficult to access.

Upon absorption by the cells, the C60 derivatives react with light radiation, allowing the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).

This triggers the cancer cell’s death by reacting with components of the cancer cell especially, DNA, proteins & lipids and subsequently, leads to a reduction in tumor size.

Lastly, once light radiation is over the fullerene will reabsorb the free radicals & demonstrably prevent damage to other tissues.

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East India

Balod, Baloda Bazar, Balrampur, Bastar,  Bemetara, Bijapur, Dantewada, Dhamtari, Durg, Gariaband, Janjgir Champa, Jashpur, Kabirdham, Kanker, Kondagaon, Korba, Koriya, Mahasamund, Mungeli, Narayanpur, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Sukma, Surajpur, Surguja, Moudhapara, Birgoan, Lalpur, Nahar Para, Devpuri, Bilaspur, Rajnandgaon, Dagori , Tilda, Lara, Silphari , Siltara, Champa, Jamul.

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Changlang, East Kameng, East Siang, Lohit, Lower Subansiri, Papum-Pare, Tawang, Tirap, Upper Siang, Upper Subansiri, West Siang, Anjaw, Lower Dibang Vally, Kurung Kumey, Namsai, Ziro, West Kameng, Naharlagun, Papum Pare, Pasighat, Tezu, Basar, Itanagar, Roing, Khonsa, Doimukh, Namsai, Chimpu, Pasighat, Itanagar, Namsai. 

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East Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills,Ri Bhoi,South Garo Hills,West Khasi Hills, Williamnagar, Shillong, Jowai, Nongpoh , Baghmara, Tura, Nongstoin, West Garo Hills, Shillong Cantonment, Jawai, Nongthymmai.

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North Goa, South Goa, Mapusa, Bicholim, Panaji, Bardez, Tiswadi, Bicholim, Sattari, Pernem, Mormugao, Ponda, Quepem, Margao and Dharbandora. Salcete, Sanguem,  Canacona, Bethora, Bicholim, Canacona, Colvale, Corlim, Cuncolim, Dharbandoda, Honda, Kakoda, Kundaim, Latambarcem, Madkaim, Mapusa, Margao Panchwadi, Pilerne, Pissurlem, Quittol, Sancoale, Sanguem, Shiroda, Thivim, Tuem,Verna, Pilerna, Porvorim, 

North India

Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur,Kullu,Lahaul & Spiti, Mandi, Shimla , Sirmaur, Solan, Una, Baddi, Sheetalpur , Sundar Nagar, Sirmour, Pataliyon, Una, Indora, Bari, Damtal, Mehatpur, Gagret, Parwano, Barotiwala, Shamshi, Nagrotu Bagwan,Sansar Pur Tera, Solan, Mandi, Hamirpur, Shogi, Raga-Ka-Bagh, Ambi, Taliwala, Keylong. 

Amritsar, Barnala, Faridkot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Firozpur, Fazilka, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana,, Moga, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Pathankot, Patiala, Rupnagar, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, Sangrur, Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar, Taran Taran, Dhilwan, Dasuya, Dinanagar, Karoran, Samrala, Malaut, Kurali, Mandi Gobindgarh,  Jaitu, Nabha, Payal, Balachaur, Muktsar, Moonak, Khamanon, Batala, Bassi Pathana, Guru Har Sahai, Bhadur, Sahnewal, Lalru, Sanaur, Longowal, Jagraon, Sardulgarh, Phillaur, Anandpur Sahib, Mohali, Nawanshahr, Banga, Dera Bassi, Bhikhi, Malerkotla, Doraha, Garhshankar, Kharar, Sirhind, Shahkot, Zirakpur, Khanna, Rampura, Ludhiana, Mansa, Dhuri, Makhu, Amloh, Urmar Tanda, Raman, Goraya, Jalandhar Cantonment, Hoshiarpur, Kartarpur, Bhuch, Malout, Rajpura, Kotkapura, Sunam, Giddarbaha, Dirba, Firozpur Cantonment, Dhariwal, Morinda, Naya Nangal, Hariana, Nakodar, Phagwara, Machhiwara, Ajnala, Sultanpur Lodhi, Tarn Taran, Maur, Zira, Alawalpur, Ghagga, Kot Kapura, Kapurthala, Pattran, Jalalabad, Bagh Purana, Bathinda, Nawashahr, Budhlada, Munak, Bhabat, Bhawanigarh, Abohar, Hajipur, Ahmedgarh, Sujanpur, Samana, Jalandhar, Sahib, Gurdaspur, Nangal,, Mukerian, Talwandi Bhai, Lehra Gaga.

Pithoragarh,Uttarkashi, Rishikesh Cantonment, Rishikesh, Dehradun, Bhim Tal, Mahua Kheraganj, Khatima, Kausani, Bageshwar, Kashipur, Sitarganj, Srinagar, Dehrakhas, Tehri, Haridwar, Narendranagar, Nainital, Vikasnagar, Kotdwara, Ramnagar, Masuri, Rurki, Roorkee, Udham Singh Nagar, Laksar, Kaladungi, Sultanpur, Almora, Manglaur, Kichha, Chamoli and Gopeshwar, Gadarpur, Chakrata, Champawat, Lalkuan, Rudraprayag, Rudrapur, Jaspur, Haldwani, Ranipur, Ranikhet, Pauri, Bazpur, Tanakpur, Chamoli, Pauri Garhwal.

Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Faridabad, Fatehabad, Gurugram, Hisar, Jhajjar, Jind, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Mahendragarh, Nuh, Palwal, Panchkula, Panipat, Rewari, Rohtak, Sirsa, Sonipat, Yamunanagar, Ladwa, Indri, Punahana, Siwani, Asandh, Raipur Rani, Ateli, Barwala, Kheri Sampla, Hodal, Ratiya, Kalka, Narayangarh, Uklana Mandi, Bahadurgarh, Tauru, Gohana, Rania, Pundri, Dharuhera, Ballabgarh, Pehowa, Gurgaon, Ghraunda, Tohana, Kanina, Narwana, Narnaund, Gannaur, Shahabad, Pinjaur, Dabwali, Chita, Samalkha, Hansi, Safidon, Taraori, Kharkhoda, Bawal, Thanesar, Kalanwali, Ellenabad, Loharu, Jagadhri, Radaur, Nilokheri, Maham, Kundli, Bilaspur, Sohna, Ambala Cantt, Narnaul, Farrukhnagar, Firozpur Jhirka, Julana, Beri,Ambala

Ringas, Sirohi, Jhalawar, Bhasawar, Khairthal, Didwana, Bari Sadri, Napasar, Chittorgarh, Kherwara Chhaoni, Kota, Ratangarh, Bharatpur, Barmer, Chhabra, Raisinghnagar, Pushkar, Mangrol, Kumbhalgarh, Bilara, Kuchaman, Chhoti Sadri, Sambhar, Suratgarh, Churu, Asind, Nawalgarh, Kankroli, Raipur, Rajgarh, Aklera, Devgarh, Dausa, Khetri, Pilani, Jaisalmer, Pali, Beawar, Ramgarh, Sangariya, Udpura, Pipar, Nimaj, Vijainagar, Abu Road, Bagru, Bundi, Shahpura, Indragarh, Sumerpur,Balotra, Baswa, Sunel, Gothra, Mount Abu, Surajgarh, Sujangarh, Pratapgarh, Ratan Nagar, Karauli, Dholpur, Chirawa, Bali, Marwar, Gangapur, Ladnun, Hindaun, Swaroopganj, Nathdwara, Deoli, Jhunjhunun, Rajsamand, Kapasan, Kishangarh, Rani, Nasirabad, Bhadra, Neemrana, Bandikui, Jaiselmer, Bikaner, Rawatbhata, Amet, Salumbar, Jhalrapatan, Falna, Rawatsar, Taranagar, Sagwara, Neem Ka Thana, Lakheri, Begun, Padampur, Dungarpur, Udaipur, Chomun, Basi, Phalodi, Pokaran, Bahror, Sardarshahr, Sikar, Jodhpur, Anupgarh, Lachhmangarh, Makrana, Chhipa Barod, Bhinmal, Kekri, Bari, Bhilwara, Jaitaran, Sriganganagar, Nawa, Kuchera, Alwar, Pilibanga, Mandawar, Kaman, Niwai, Pindwara, Jalore, Merta, Newa Talai, Sheoganj, Sojat Road, Hanumangarh, Sawai Madhopur, Ramganj Mandi, Fatehnagar, Kot Putli, Nokha, Nagar, Baran, Nohar, Bhawani Mandi, Ajmer, Nimbahera, Sojat, Malpura, Lalsot, Jaipur, Rajakhera, Bijoliya Kalan, Nagaur, Madanganj, Bhawri, Ganganagar, Raniwara, Mundwa, Sadulshahar, Sadri, Tijara, Phulera, Fatehpur, Banswara, Bhiwadi, Bayana, Sanchor, Tonk.

Aligarh, PrayagRaj, Ambedkar Nagar, Amroha, Auraiya, Azamgarh, Badaun, Bahraich, Ballia, Balrampur, Banda District, Barabanki, Bareilly, Basti, Bijnor, Bulandshahr, Chandauli(Varanasi Dehat), Chitrakoot, Deoria, Etah, Etawah, Faizabad, Farrukhabad, Fatehpur, Firozabad, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Hamirpur, Hapur District, Hardoi, Hathras, Jaunpur District, Jhansi, Kannauj, Kanpur Dehat, Kanpur Nagar, Kasganj, Kaushambi, Kushinagar, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lalitpur, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mahoba, Mainpuri, Mathura, Mau, Meerut, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Pilibhit, Pratapgarh, Rae Bareli, Rampur, Saharanpur, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Sambhal, Shahjahanpur, Shamli, Shravasti, Siddharthnagar, Sitapur, Sonbhadra, Sultanpur, Unnao, Varanasi (Kashi), Allahabad, Amethi, Bagpat, Baheri, Bilsi, Bilaspur, Maghar, Chandausi, Mubarakpur, Palia Kalan, Sadabad, Sahanpur, Jalaun, Lakhimpur, Kurara, Anpara, Gopiganj, Chhata, Sandila, Harraiya, Jewar, Robertsganj, Ramkola, Khekra, Bharthana, Kiratpur, Fatehabad, Sikandra Rao, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Nautanwa, Jhansi Cantonment, Chilkana Sultanpur, Bangarmau, Usawan, Jais, Tilhar, Fatehpur Chaurasi, Deoband, Khatauli, Rudarpur, Beswan, Kanpur, Tundla, Nawabganj, Kerakat, Jalalabad, Aliganj, Dibiyapur, Purdil Nagar, Sirsaganj, Orai, Biswan, Dhanaura, Shikarpur, Behat, Hasanpur, Sikandarabad, Gautam Buddh Nagar, Modinagar, Nihtaur, Chitrakut Dham, Nichlaul, Khamaria, Bikapur, Jalesar, Loni, Barhani, Musafirkhana, Jasrana, Jansath, Varanasi, Jalalpur, Vrindavan, Kota, Sikandra, Gajraula, Khalilabad, Beniganj, Sardhana, Babrala, Bahjoi, Kundarki, Puranpur, Siyana, Baraut, Phaphund, Agra, Rampura, Ramnagar, Muradnagar, Dhampur, Pilkhuwa, Najibabad, Bilsanda, Dudhinagar, Gola Gokarannath, Greater Noida, Mathura Cantonment, Bindki, Kosi Kalan, Ganj Muradabad, Nagina, Bhatpar Rani, Alapur, Prayagraj Cantonment, Mankapur, Manikpur, Sahaswan, Bilari, Chandpur, Varanasi Cantonment, Bisalpur, Faizabad Cantonment, Bidhuna, Aurangabad, Fatehgarh, Kalpi, Lalganj, Renukut, Bisauli, Dibai, Karhal, Bilhaur, Sherkot, Nakur, Rasra, Seohara, Safipur, Hapur, Daurala, Kishni, Anupshahr, Obra, Rath, Dasna, Tanda, Gunnaur, Barva Sagar, Konch, Mauranipur, Jaunpur, Kishanpur, Bareilly Cantonment, Thakurdwara, Shahganj, Kunda, Ayodhya, Bulandshahar, Mawana, Miranpur, Kanth, Kharkhoda, Budaun, Gursahaiganj, Bhinga, Colonelganj, Zamania, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Nagar, Chandauli, Sirsa, Bhadohi, Sidhpura, Rae Bareilly, Karnawal, Sarsawan, Noida, Gyanpur, Shikohabad, Bhongaon, Shahjahanpur Cantonment, Gangoh, Gokul, Khurja, Hata, Sahibabad, Patti, Gulaothi, Anandnagar, Fatehpur Sikri, Chunar, Ghosia Bazar, Mursan, Pahasu, Nizamabad, Agra Cantonment, Kheri, Hyderabad, Kairana, Banda, Dadri.

Balod, Baloda Bazar, Balrampur, Bastar, Bemetara, Bijapur, Bilaspur, Dantewada, Dhamtari, Durg, Gariaband, Janjgir-Champa, Jashpur, Kabirdham, Kanker, Kondagaon, Korba, Koriya, Mahasamund, Mungeli, Narayanpur, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Sukma, Surajpur, Surguja, Pathalgaon, Dongragarh, Bilha, Kharsia, Saraipali, Mahendragarh, Tildanewra, Jashpurnagar, Champa, Khairagarh, Sarajpur, Bhatapara, Bagbahara, Kurud, Bhilai, Pendra, Baloda, Jagdalpur, Katghora, Sarangarh, Kawardha, Pithora, Ramanuj Ganj, Kumhari, Telgaon, Chirmiri, Bemetra, Kota, Ambikapur, Dongargaon, Sakti, Urla, Charoda.

Agar Malwa, Alirajpur, Anuppur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Barwan, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal, Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Dindori, East Nimar, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Neemuch, Niwari, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Sheopur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Singrauli, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Umaria, Vidisha, West Nimar, Agar, Khandwa, Khargone, Sukhlia, Loha Mandi, Pithampur, Palda, Narmadapuram, Lasudia , Budasa, Patan, Shahpur, Sonkatch, Pachmarhi, Birsinghpur, Depalpur, Bagli, Parasia, Maksi, Mau, Sarangpur, Malaj Khand, Garoth, Begamganj, Khetia, Machalpur, Barwani, Biaora, Joura, Shahpura, Maihar, Kailaras, Jawad, Multai, Mangawan, Anjad, Sagar Cantonment, Beohari, Jaora, Panagar, Gohad, Karera, Pipliya Mandi, Amarpatan, Gormi, Sihora, Barwaha, Jirapur, Khujner, Manasa, Pichhore, Rajpur, Rampura, Maheshwar, Manawar, Katangi, Bagh, Kotma, Babai, Nalkheda, Alot, Khirkiya, Sanchi, Sitamau, Gairatganj, Malhargarh, Shamgarh, Dabra, Ichhawar, Gadarwara, Vijayraghavgarh, Basoda, Bamaniya, Nagod, Dhamnod, Shujalpur, Rau, Nepa Nagar, Kukshi, Rahatgarh, Betul Bazar, Banda, Pipariya, Udaipura, Badnagar, Bina-Etawa, Mhow, Khajuraho, Amarwara, Berasia, Sendhwa, Mandleshwar, Khurai, Sultanpur, Khilchipur, Jabalpur G.C.F, Baraily, Sausar, Tarana, Malanpur, Jabalpur Cantonment, Badnawar, Petlawad, Bijuri, Timarni, Sironj, Sohagpur, Mandideep, Kareli, Tekanpur, Harsud, Bhainsdehi, Pandhurna, Ashta, Hanumana, Ratlam Kasba, Khategaon, Itarsi, Kasrawad, Ganjbasoda, Chanderi, Rampur Baghelan, Bina Railway Colony, Kurwai, Sanawad, Chichli, Kothi, Nagda, Baihar, Indergarh,,

South India

Perundurai, Thirumazhisai, Melur, Cuddalore, Theni Allinagaram, Kallakkurichi, Sayapuram, Agaram, Sivakasi, Thiruvithankodu, Maraimalai Nagar, Madhavaram, Vadalur, Musiri, Pudukkottai , Kundrathur, Srivaikuntam, Surandai, Bargur, Sholinganallur, Kodambakkam, Palladam, Mulanur, Punjaipugalur, Kelambakkam, Minambakkam, Pennagaram, Kotagiri, Jalakandapuram, Hosur, Bhavani, Tiruchchendur, Punjai Thottakurichi, Vadakarai Kizhpadugai, Ettaiyapuram, Ganapathipuram, Panruti, Ramapuram, Arcot, Vaniyambadi, Mudukulathur, Dhalavoipuram, Gingi, Kadayal, Ayyampettai, Natrampalli, Anaimalai, Kallidaikurichchi, Vadamadurai, Karaikkudi, Pernambut, Kamayagoundanpatti, Vijayapuri, Palayamkottai, Minjur, Thanjavur, Attur, Neyveli, Gandhi Nagar, Dharmapuri, Maduranthakam, Ulundurpettai, Auroville, Vaithiswarankoil, Paramakkudi, Kolachal, Kangayam, Kamuthi, Usilampatti, Vadakku Valliyur, Aralvaimozhi, Belur, Kadathur, Kariamangalam, Inam Karur, Odaiyakulam, Nagapattinam, Udankudi, Arimalam, Mallapuram, Pattiviranpatti, Tirupur, Kaliyakkavilai, Iluppur, Coonoor, Kariapatti, Uttamapalaiyam, Dharapuram, Annur, Vasudevanallur, Ariyalur, Kulithalai, Avadi, Manapparai, Ambasamudram, Tharangambadi, Athanur, Rameswaram, Taramangalam, Sankarankoil, Udagamandalam, Natham, Theni, Kumbakonam, Vellakoil, Kumarapuram, Mayiladuthurai, Alwar Tirunagari, Thiruvalam, Zamin Uthukuli, Coimbatore, Nasiyanur, Chennai, Namakkal, Pallipalaiyam, Vandavasi, Kelamangalam, Kottur, Madurai, Tiruvottiyur, Idappadi, Kalavai, Tiruvallur, Thirunirmalai, Mahabalipuram, Alangulam, Gudiyattam, Vikravandi, Perambalur, Singaperumalkoil, Kovilpatti, Vengavasal, Vilapakkam, Anthiyur, Karumathampatti, Thiruporur, Swamimalai, Madukkarai, Arantangi, Manavalakurichi, Pammal, Urapakkam, Valangaiman, Nagercoil, Singampuneri, Madippakkam, Kinathukadavu, Tirumangalam, Mangadu, Tirupattur, Harur, Puliyankudi, Pollachi, Thuthipattu, Perungalathur, Dindigul, Omalur, Komarapalayam, Thiruvarur, Parangippettai, Kambam, Pallipattu, Acharapakkam, Peraiyur, Sirumugai, Rasipuram, Srirangam, Virudhachalam, Adyar, Thisayanvilai, Polur, Vandalur, Nanguneri, Sattur, Tiruchengode, Aruppukkottai, Kuzhithurai, Kunnathur, Tindivanam, Devakottai, Alangudi, Uthangarai, Kottakuppam, Ranipet, Sankari, Sathyamangalam, Nallur, Sholingur, Tiruverambur, Sirkali, Ramanathapuram, Kolathur, Nannilam, Athani, Karur, Chennimalai, Kattuputhur, Salem, Sivagiri, Nilgiris, Kaveripattinam, Gobichettipalayam, Periyakulam, Cheyyar, Ambur, Chinalapatti, Papanasam, Tiruvannamalai, Aravakurichi, Mallur, Chinna Salem, Sivaganga, Erode, Udumalaipettai, Anakaputhur, Palakkodu, Arni, Maduravoyal, Virudhunagar, Kattumannarkoil, Pudukkottai, Tirupathur, Lalgudi, Tenkasi, Thondamuthur, Chennasamudram, Tirukkoyilur, Arakonam, Sulur, Melvisharam, Kollankoil, Chengalpattu, Ooty, Thiruthangal, Kalugumalai, Udayarpalayam, Krishnagiri, Gummidipoondi, Chembarambakkam, Peravurani, Tiruverkadu, Kayalpattinam, Punjai Puliyampatti, Tuticorin, Kalpakkam, Gangavalli, Srimushnam, Pattukkottai, Saravanampatti, Vilathikulam, Denkanikottai, Muthupet, Thirumalayampalayam, Guduvanchery, Chatrapatti, Madanur, Thuvakudi, Arani, Bhuvanagiri, Perungudi, Kanchipuram, Kodaikanal, Karamadai, Kanyakumari, Mukkudal, Huligal, Nellikkuppam, Panapakkam, Uthiramerur, Shenkottai, Kilvelur, Nilakkottai, Mettur, Kanakkampalayam, Mamallapuram, Gudalur, Thirunindravur, Puliyur, Tiruchirappalli, Uttukkuli, Villupuram, Mannargudi, Nerkunram, Tirunelveli, Manachanallur, Thottiyam, Walajapet, Ponneri, Kumarapalayam, Porur, Jayankondam, Mettupalayam, Valavanur, Vedaranniyam, Vriddhachalam, Srivilliputtur, Pappireddipatti, Orathanadu, Kadayanallur, Manamadurai, Puzhal, Palani, Edaikodu, Annavasal, Adiramapattinam, Oddanchatram, Avinashi, Mylapore, Valasaravakkam, Mattur, Pandamangalam, Chidambaram, Katpadi, Thevaram, Elayirampannai, Sriperumpudur, Madambakkam, Chinnammanur, Bodinayakkanur, Virakeralam, Thiruthuraipundi, Kilakarai, Rajapalayam, Vellore, Kallakurichi, Kanniyakumari, Thoothukudi, Tiruppur, Tiruvarur, Viluppuram, Ambattur, Parrys, Broadway, Guindy, Madhavaram, Padi, Sriperumbudur, Injambakkam, Mudichur, Park town, Sowcarpet, , Vadapalani, Teynampet, Velachery, Mannivakkam Perambur, Thuraipakkam, Tondiarpet.


Adilabad, Bhadradri Kothagudem, Hyderabad, Jagitial, Jangaon, Jayashankar Bhupalapally, Jogulamba Gadwal, Kamareddy, Karimnagar, Khammam, Kumarambheem Asifabad, Mahabubabad, Mahabubnagar, Mancherial district, Medak, Medchal–Malkajgiri, Mulugu, Nagarkurnool, Narayanpet, Nalgonda, Nirmal, Nizamabad, Peddapalli, Rajanna Sircilla, Ranga Reddy, Sangareddy, Siddipet, Suryapet, Vikarabad, Wanaparthy, Warangal Rural, Warangal Urban, Yadadri Bhuvanagiri, Adilabad, Kothagudem, Bhupalpalle, Gadwal, Asifabad, Mancherial, Shamirpet, Sircilla, Shamshabad, Warangal, Bhongir, Secunderabad, Ranigunj, Yellandu, Medchal, Manuguru, Palwancha, Patancheru, Ranga Reddy district, Miryalaguda, Sathupalle, Ramagundam, Bhainsa, Armoor, Narsampet, Ghatkesar, Jagtial, Zahirabad, Koratla, Tandur, Kodada, Gajwel, Bodhan, Sarapaka, Bhadrachalam.

Anantapur, Chittoor, East Godavari, Guntur, Kadapa, Krishna, Kurnool, Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore, Prakasam, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, West Godavari, Kakinada, Machilipatnam, Nellore, Ongole, Eluru, Renigunta, Hukumpeta, Chirala, Rajam, Markapur, Kurmannapalem, Suriapet, Madanapalle, Mancheral, Razam, Kanigiri, Pendurthi, Palmaner, Mandapeta, West Godavari Dist., Alampur, Dharmavaram, Narsapur, Tadepalligudem, Pedana, Avanigadda, Ramachandrapuram, Tirvuru, Nandigama, Tadpatri, East Godavari Dist., Peddapuram, Qutubullapur, Gopalapatnam, Uppal Kalan, Bestavaripeta, Pamur, Sirsilla, Pedagantyada, Guti, Puttur, Rameswaram, Kamalapuram, Nagari, Chimakurthy, Kavali, Rajampet, Bapatla, Turangi, Anakapalle, Jammalamadugu, Proddatur, Srikalahasti, Dhone, Penugonda, Narasaraopet, Amur, Tirumala, Vetapalem, Tiruchanur, Palasa, Tuni, Guntakal, Amalapuram, Garacharma, Nandyal, Punganuru, Kuppam, Hindupur, Yemmiganur, Gudur, Sirpur, Rajendranagar, Choutuppal, Salur, Tekkali, Vemalwada, Narayanavanam, Bobbili, Sattenapalle, Mandasa, Gudivada, Adoni, Pulivendla, Chilakaluripet, Uravakonda, Kollapur, Prasantinilayam, Atmakur, Badvel, Trimulgherry, Tenali, Bhimavaram, Nuzvid, Chandur, Karnul, Cuddapah, Kazipet, Ravulapalam, Marturu, Betamcherla, Sulurpeta, Yadagirigutta, Pakala, Nidadavole, Godavarikhani, Repalle, Cumbum, Gannavaram, Nayudupeta, Narsipatnam, Tirupati, Rajahmundry, Palakole, Ajjaram, Samalkot, Kamareddi, Pithapuram, Vijayawada, Chinagantyada, Bapulapadu, Chodavaram, Tanuku, Macherla, Challapalle, Kadiri, Mahabubnagar, Yellamanchili, Akividu, Jaggayyapeta, Gajuvaka, Vinukonda, Kovvur, Singarayakonda, Seetharampuram, Kovur, Andole, Mangalagiri.

Bangalore / Bengaluru , Hubli, Belgaum , Mysuru / Mysore, Shivamogga, Gulbarga, Tumakuru, Davangere, Udupi, Ballari, Bidar, Dharwad , Hampi, Biljapur, Chitradurga, Badami, Hassan, Hosapete, Chikmaglur, Raichur, Gadag, Madikeri, Srirangapatna, Mandya, Bhadravathi, Bagalkot, Karwar, Belur, Uttara Kannada, Pattadakal, Gangavathi, Halebidu, Ranebennur, Hassan, Kolar, Dandeli, Gulbarga, Sringeri, Robertsonpet, Bijapur, Aihole, Manipal, Gadag, Devanahalli, Koppal, Kolar, Manipal, Doddaballapur, Sakleshpur, Karkala.

Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirvandrum, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Kollam, Kannur, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Palakkad, Munnar , Varkala , Thalassery, Kovalam, Kasaragod, Aluva, Perinthalmanna, Pathanamthitta, chalakuddy, Thodupuzha, Punalur, Tirur, Guruvayur, Kodungallur, Thiruvalla, Malappuram, Muvattupuzha, Kumarakom, Kollam, Tripunithura, Nilambur, Adoor, Kalpetta, Cherthala, Chegannur, Vadakara, Kayamkulam, Ottapalam, Kottarakkara, Vaikom, Ponnani, Kanhangad, Changanacherry, Mattancherry, Kothamangalam, Kalamassery, Koyilandy, Pala, Chavakkad, Perumbavoor, Beypore

Union territories OF India

Anantnag, Bandipore, Baramulla, Budgam, Doda, Ganderbal, Jammu, Kathua, Kishtwar, Kulgam, Kupwara, Poonch, Pulwama, Rajauri, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Shopian district, Srinagar, Udhampur, Leh, Kargil, Kishtwar, Shupiyan, Ganderbal,Kartholi, Lassipora, Rangreth, Sopore, Shalteng, Lassipora, Ghatti, Budgam, Trikuta Nagar, Bakshi Nagar, Bishnah, Digiana, Kothi Bagh.

Central Delhi, North Delhi, South Delhi, East Delhi, North East Delhi, South West Delhi, New Delhi, North West Delhi, West Delhi, South Eest Delhi, Daryaganj, Sadar Bazaar, Saket, Preet Vihar, Shahdara, Palam, Connaught Place, Kanjhawala, Rajouri Garden, Defence Colony,Ajmeri Gate, Rohini, Nawada, Anand Parbat, Mundka.

South Andaman, North And Middle Andaman, Nicobars, Portblair, Mayabunder, Car Nicobar, Garacharma, Pahargaon,Pathergudda, Junglighat.

Kavaratti, Agethi

Daman, Diu, Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Naroli, Dabhel, Silvassa.

Karaikal, Mahe, Pondicherry, Yanam, Kurumbapet, Manavely, Ozhukarai, Thirumalairayanpattinam, Villianur, Puducherry. 


Nano Hydroxyapatite Powder

TOOTITE Nano Hydroxyapatite powder & micro hydroxyapatite powders are acicular, spherical/acicular-like or spherical shaped. They are used in manufacturing of toothpastes, toothpaste tablets and mouthwashes. The average particle sizes range from microns to nm. Nano Hydroxyapatite is similar to the human tooth enamel by morphology and crystal structure. Nano Hydroxyapatite are incorporated in oral care formulations to treat dentin hypersensitivity and promote remineralisation and restoration of the dental enamel.
Lesions of tooth enamel expose the dentine tubules. The exposed dentine tubules are thus subject to different stimuli in the mouth, which reaches the pulp and causes sharp pain. The  Nano Hydroxyapatite reduces this pain as the Nano particles are so small that they can enter and fill the dentin tubules.

For Nano Hydroxyapatite particles precipitate inside the dentin tubules and block the interaction of nerves to the external stimuli. It can also precipitate onto the surface of the enamel of the tooth and remineralizer the dental caries by forming a new apatite layer.
The new apatite layer so formed is hard, making teeth stronger and prevents tooth decay.


Role of Nano Hydroxyapatite Powder Tooth Repair:


TOOTITE (Nano Hydroxyapatite) resembles human teeth in composition. It offers an excellent alternative to fluoride-based dental products.

Toothpastes and Toothpaste Tablets : 5 to 15% w/w
Mouthwashes :15.5 % suspension in water.
The suspensions can be sterilized by autoclaving at 1200C for 15 minutes without affecting the properties of Nano Hydroxyapatite.

We offer TOOTITE (Nano & Micro Hydroxyapatite) in various particle sizes for use in dental & bone care formulations. TOOTITE is obtained from natural mineral sources & not from animal sources. The product is TSE/BSE free.

Particle MorphologyAverage Particle SizeOrdering Information
Spherical2 µmTOOTITE-2
Spherical/Acicular-like200 nm TOOTITE-200
Acicular40 nm TOOTITE-40

Our Product Range

Nano Hydroxyapatite Powder

SOILTITE Nano Hydroxyapatite powder & micro hydroxyapatite powder are Spherical or acicular shaped.  SOILTITE Nano Hydroxyapatite is used in soil remediation for different solutions. The average particle sizes range from microns to nm.

Presence of heavy metals in soils is a serious environmental issue and is transported to living beings via the food chain. SOILTITE Nano Hydroxyapatite effectively immobilizes lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, arsenic in soil contaminated with these elements. Improvement of growth of maize and bean plants have been observed by addition of 0.5 % to 1% Hydroxyapatite to the soil. Higher percentages need to be used judiciously.

Addition of Nano Hydroxyapatite to the soil showed decreased accumulation of Cadmium in rape plant and cabbage. The phosphatase activity in soil increased after adding Nano Hydroxyapatite. Typical use levels for remidiation are 15 g/kg.

Particle MorphologyAverage Particle SizePhase Purity
Spherical80 μm99%
Spherical2 μm96%
Spherical / Acicular-like200 nm96%
Acicular40 nm or 60 nm96%

Our Product Range

Hydroxyapatite Powder

Nano hydroxyapatite Powder made from natural mineral sources, branded as COSMETITE – 40, is TSE/BSE free. It is acicular in nature and has an average crystallite size of 40 nm.

COSMETITE-40 has excellent protein adsorption properties, removes dirt & dead cells of skin, gently, without damaging the skin. This allows making face wash formulations without the use of harsh exfoliating or scrubbing ingredients.

Accelerated collagen production would be done by COSMETITE-40 by stimulating cells called fibroblasts, which is responsible for structure, elasticity & firmness of the skin.

Role of Cosmetite in Skin Cleansing & Anti-Aging

SEM Image

Our Product Range

Related Products

Nano Hydroxyapatite Powder

Bonite Hydroxyapatite Powder of either acicular (needle-shaped) or short – road like in morphology. These powder are best suited for artificial bone (bone grafts), bone scaffolds (for bone defect reconstruction). The average particle sizes are 20 nm.

Particle MorphologyAverage particle SizePhase Purity
Acicular20nm97.5% or 99%
Short rod-like20nm99%

Our Product Range

Hydroxyapatite Powder

AIMTITE Hydroxyapatite powder is a synthetic micro Hydroxyapatite powder generally of spherical shape. For the most part, these are most suited for application in 3D printing, Thermal spraying, Plasma Spraying, bone coating, bone repair & bone filling & synthetic bone substitute. Usually, the average particle size is in microns to mm. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is an example of a bio-ceramic inorganic compound with a chemical composition similar to the bone. Hydroxyapatite is used especially as a bioactive coat on metallic implants & all the more it increases the bone & consequently the implant surface.

For 3D Printing:

The 3D printing of neat hydroxyapatite scaffolds is as a matter of fact difficult to obtain. To obtain target-specific scaffolds hydroxyapatite is either processed with sacrificial materials like polymers or other materials like ceramics or bioactive glass. Moreover, binders like polyacrylamide, PVA, sodium polyacrylate, maltodextrin, etc. thus are used. The 3D constructed components have controlled architecture and porosity. The hydroxyapatite “ink” can be cell-free or have cell-encapsulated materials. Various techniques & moreover, for example, β – Tricalcium phosphate, Calcium sulfate, silk-fibroin, graphene, CNTs etc. have been used to fabricate hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

Thermal Spraying Hydroxyapatite, [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], is used in biomedical applications including orthopedic device, dental replacements, tissue engineering & bioactive coating. Hydroxyapatite is used regularly for coating either metallic implants of SS316L or Titanium or Ti6Al4V due its excellent biocompatibility & bioactivity.

Hydroxyapatite stimulates strong a bond between metal & bone. Moreover, Hydroxyapatite coating shields the release of metallic ions of the implant into the body. Thermal spraying is an FDA-approved method for coating biomedical implants. 

For Thermal Spraying:

Thermal Spraying Uses:


low flame temperature & high flow velocity of hydroxyapatite particles. For example, typical spray parameters for coating hydroxyapatite on implants are as follows & usually will vary according to the type of equipment & the hydroxyapatite used:

  • Acetylene flow rate: 70 – 75 Lit/minute
  • Oxygen flow rate: 40 – 45 Lit/minute
  • Air pressure: 4 – 5 kg/cm2
  • Powder feed rate: 15 gm/minute
  • Spray distance: About 10 cm

Thermal spraying-based techniques produce thick coatings of several tens of micrometers, even though the use of a feedstock as a solution or suspension can result in thinner coatings (5 to 10 μm) when compared with thermal spraying when using dry powders.

Knee implants – Hydroxyapatite coatings have also been used in un – cemented knee prostheses, with coatings applied by plasma spraying to the femoral &/or tibial components. These have more than 20 years of clinical use. For un-cemented hips, the use of un-cemented knee prostheses is generally, for most part, recommended for younger patients (< 60 years).

Plasma-Spray Method is above all used for coating o dental & orthopedic implants. A coating on Titanium or Ti6Al4V can be achieved using this method for the most part. Thinner films of hydroxyapatite ordinarily can be deposited on metal substrates using Suspension Plasma Spray (SPS).
Usually adding Titanium to Hydroxyapatite improves the bonding strength of the coating from about 14.5 to 17.3 MPa. Not to mention that an increase in the adhesion of the coating layer to the implant can be observed if Titanium content increases.

Hydroxyapatite reinforced with 10%w/w of a mix of 80Al2O3 +20TiO2 on Ti6Al4V, moreover, enhances adhesion strength in this case to above 32 MPa.

Sol-Gel Dip Coating Method for applying hydroxyapatite layers involves the formation of Sol-Gel using Calcium Nitrate & Phosphorus pentoxide or triethyl phosphate using aqueous or alcoholic solvents for the most part. Moreover, this is followed by dipping the substrate into the sol-gel over time. It is simply subsequently withdrawn & then dried.

This process is thus simple, fast, cheap & in particular, allows uniform deposition of hydroxyapatite onto complex surfaces at low temperatures.

Electrochemical The electrochemical Deposition Method in particular allows progressive nucleation & growth of hydroxyapatite coat. This leads to a demonstrably homogenous deposition, controlled thickness & reduced decomposition of the hydroxyapatite layer. Besides, Cathodic deposition systems used are either Electrophoretic or Electrolytic.

Likewise, Graphite or Platinum are used as anodes. Hydroxyapatite can additionally be combined with CNTs, ZrO2, TiO2, etc. to achieve better properties. The following table is guidance, comparing electrodeposition methods drawn from various references.

High-Velocity Suspension Plasma Spraying (HVSPS) Method for coating metal substrates, by all means, enhances bioactivity, prevents wearing & corrosion of implants as well as controls the release of harmful metal ions in the body. This method is especially widely used.
The High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) allows for the formation of a suspension spraying layer. In the same manner, the high velocity of powders allows the formation of a uniform protective coat with low porosity.
Fine or Nano Powders of Hydroxyapatite can be thermally sprayed directly using plasma or gas jets. Aqueous medium &/or Diethylene Glycol suspensions of hydroxyapatite can also be used. Additionally, the coating produced does not delaminate from the substrate significantly.

Application of AimtiteAverage Particle Sizes (μm)
3D Printing15 100 200
Thermal Spraying15 50 100 – 150
Bone Coating50
Bone Repair200 3mm
Bone Filling3mm
Application of AimtiteAverage Particle Sizes (μm)
3D Printing15 100 200
Thermal Spraying15 50 100 – 150
Bone Coating50
Bone Repair200 3mm
Bone Filling3mm

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Industrial Grades for Ceramic Coating

Ceramic coated pipes are a revolutionary addition to the world of plumbing and fluid transport. Here’s some information about them:

What are Ceramic Coated Pipes? Ceramic coated pipes are metal pipes that have been treated with a ceramic layer. This ceramic layer is created through a process called thermal spraying, where a ceramic material is heated until it becomes molten, then sprayed onto the pipe’s surface where it solidifies and bonds with the metal.

Benefits of Ceramic Coated Pipes

  1. Corrosion Resistance: The ceramic coating provides excellent protection against corrosion, extending the life of the pipe.
  2. Heat Resistance: Ceramic materials are known for their ability to withstand high temperatures, making these pipes ideal for applications involving hot fluids or gases.
  3. Abrasion Resistance: The hard ceramic surface reduces wear and tear from abrasive materials, making these pipes suitable for transporting solids like sand or coal.
  4. Improved Flow: The smooth ceramic surface can improve fluid flow by reducing friction.

Applications of Ceramic Coated Pipes Ceramic coated pipes are used in a variety of industries, including oil and gas, mining, power generation, and chemical processing. They are particularly useful in situations where pipes are exposed to corrosive substances, high temperatures, or abrasive materials.

In conclusion, ceramic coated pipes offer a durable and efficient solution for many industrial applications. Their superior performance characteristics can lead to cost savings over time due to reduced maintenance and replacement costs. Whether it’s for a small-scale plumbing project or a large industrial operation, ceramic coated pipes are a smart choice for reliable and long-lasting fluid transport.



Protects the pipe externally from extreme corrosive conditions, including seawater.

Provides insulation by not allowing heat/cold to get transferred to the atmosphere etc.

The coating can resist very high temperatures & does not peel off.

Thin coat does not increase weight of the pipes.

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