AIGO GRAPHENE OXIDE is a single or multi Carbon layer with both surfaces modified by Oxygen containing functional groups.  Carbon layers in multilayer Graphene Oxide are separated by functional groups bonded to each layer of carbon atoms.  Graphene Oxide like Graphene is a 2 dimensional material.  Properties of Graphene Oxide & Graphene are extremely different.

  • Graphene Oxide does not absorb visible light & has low electric conductance, and shows higher chemical activity as compared to Graphene.
  • Graphene Oxide particles are highly hydrophilic & form stable aqueous dispersions in wide range of concentrations.
  • Graphene Oxide forms stable dispersions with organic solvents like ethylene glycol & dimethylformamide (DMF) & N-methyl-2-pyrollidone (NMP) & tetrahydrofuran (THF). This is attributed to the fact that hydrogen bonding takes place between the hydroxyl groups on the surface of Graphene oxide & solvent interface. This property enables films to be made on different substrates using simple drop-casting method followed by evaporating the solvent.
  • Graphene Oxide films have high optical transparency.
  • As hydroxyl and epoxy groups are present on the planes and carboxylic acid groups at the edges, allows Graphene Oxide to be chemically functionalized by different reagents.
  • Non-covalent functionalization (by cation-π or van der Waals interaction) allows successful attachment of DNA or proteins to the surface of Graphene Oxide films which is useful for bio sensing applications.

General Applications: Construction materialPaints & CoatingsPlastic & Polymer CompositesLubricantsWater PurificationR&D work


Organoleptic properties: Dark Brown powder; odourless.

Flash Point: Above 19000C

Density: ~ 0.5 g/cm3

Average Particle Size: 60-90 µm

  • Average D/G Ratio: 1.01 – 1.10

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Airgo Reduced graphene oxide

AIRGO – Reduced Graphene Oxide

AIGO Graphene Oxide

AIGG – Graphene Dispersion In Glycerol

Aigo graphene oxide

AIGOD - Graphene Oxide Dispersion

Conductive Transparent Coatings

Graphene Oxide is being used in fabrication of transparent Graphene electrodes of unrestricted area for displays, solar cells and additionally in luminescent light sources. Reduced Graphene Oxide is used to obtain transparent protective & conductive coatings.


Reduced Graphene Oxide transparent film is as a matter of fact is somewhat less conductive then CVD graphene films. Reduced Graphene Oxide films can withstand physical deformation and paves way for application in flexible electronics.
Selective transformation of Graphene Oxide to Reduced Graphene Oxide allows formation of electrical interconnections on flexible substrates. Above all this opens up its applicability in fabrication like flexible as well as transparent circuit interconnections, Field Effect Transistors (FETs) & Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs).


The Reduced Graphene Oxide (AIRGO) are a part of electrodes for energy storage systems For example – Super capacitors, Lithium ion, Lead-Acid, Lithium Sulfur, Air-Aluminium etc. batteries in particular. Reduced Graphene Oxide particularly shows significant performance as anode material (NAM) in Lithium ion batteries as compared to graphite.

Reduced Graphene Oxide has large surface to mass ratio, high electrical conductivity & moreover have high mechanical strength. This makes them NAMs for high capacity, fast-charging Lithium-ion batteries.

Lithium ion intercalaction, on the other hand, into reduced Graphene Oxide enhances specific capacity of the graphene nanostructures.

Solar Cells

Low cost flexible solar cells can take advantage of large area Reduced Graphene OxideGraphene Oxide as well as chemically modified Reduced Graphene Oxide can be used subsequently as components for electron transport layers in developing organic perovskite based solar cells. Using Graphene Oxide as well as Reduced Graphene Oxide especially enhances quantum efficiency as well as durability. Graphene Oxide & Reduced Graphene Oxide are also useful materials for counter electrode in dye-sensitized ultralow cost solar cells based on liquid electrolyte.

Super capacitors

Reduced Graphene Oxide, can be used as an electrode material in relation to making new generation Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs).


Chemically modified Graphene Oxide as well as Reduced Graphene Oxide based composites generally are effective adsorbents for removal of various pollutions from wastewater, for most part, the heavy metal ions.; not to mention, that they can be easily regenerated.


Chemically modified Graphene Oxide as well as Graphene Oxide based composites generally are effective adsorbents for removal various pollutions from wastewater, for most part, the heavy metal ions.; not to mention, that they can be easily regenerated.

Sensors for Chemistry & Biology

Partly reduced Graphene Oxide films are ideal for use in making chemical & biological sensors in sensing Hydrogen, & Nitrogen Dioxide as well as Humidity.

Medicine & Biology

Modified Graphene Oxide, for instance, can be used as drug carrier in cancer chemotherapy yet used as tool for gene cancer therapy based on RNA interference.

Microwave Absorption

Aerogel sponges of Graphene Oxide as well as Reduced Graphene Oxide can be used for microwave absorption for electromagnetic interference (EMI) & especially provide a shielding effect.



Powder of Graphene Oxide (AIGO), additionally, (which has a very large surface area), drastically increases compressive strength of concrete by about 50% as compared to conventional Grade M 60.

This is a beneficial effect for construction and structural engineering for this reason. Graphene Oxide additionally enhances mechanical interlocking, additionally provides great interaction between the microcracks and also promotes hydration process.

Polycarboxylate Ether Superplastisizer additive ordinarily causes, above all, better dispersion of Graphene Oxide in the cement matrix. It additionally prevents aggregation of Graphene Oxide in the pore solution.

In summary, dispersion of small amounts of Graphene oxide is possible in large amounts of hydraulic cement-mortar mixes.


Free flowing powders of AIGO & AIRGO can be used as colorants for eye decorative cosmetics, skin products as well as mascaras.

Simply, AIGO, is by all means dispersible in water & in particular is safe to use in cosmetic hair coloring formulas. When mixed with chitosan, in particular, nano formulations of brown to black shades are obtained.

AIGO has good resistance to shampooing & besides, additionally imparts anti-static properties to hair. This makes it possible to make toxicity-free hair color formulations.

Above all, AIGO & AIRGO, usually, have a very large surface area in relation to Carbon Black Nano (CI 77266).

Currently, in the EU, for most part, Carbon Black nano is usually used as colorant as a matter of fact with a maximum concentration of 10%. Not to mention, however, that these carbon black nanoparticles have cytotoxicity, causes inflammation & affect phagocytosis by human monocytes. This generally causes lowered immunity.

Graphene Oxide Dispersions Applications

Get the ultimate strength and durability with Our Graphene Oxide Powder from any part of Globe.


North America

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East India

Balod, Baloda Bazar, Balrampur, Bastar,  Bemetara, Bijapur, Dantewada, Dhamtari, Durg, Gariaband, Janjgir Champa, Jashpur, Kabirdham, Kanker, Kondagaon, Korba, Koriya, Mahasamund, Mungeli, Narayanpur, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Sukma, Surajpur, Surguja, Moudhapara, Birgoan, Lalpur, Nahar Para, Devpuri, Bilaspur, Rajnandgaon, Dagori , Tilda, Lara, Silphari , Siltara, Champa, Jamul.

Angul, Boudh (Baudh), Balangir, Bargarh, Balasore (Baleswar), Bhadrak, Cuttack, Deogarh (Debagarh), Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Gajapati, Jharsuguda, Jajpur, Jagatsinghapur, Khordha, Keonjhar (Kendujhar), Kalahandi, Kandhamal, Koraput, Kendrapara, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangpur, Nuapada, Nayagarh, Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur (Sonepur), Sundargarh, Kataka, Rayagada,.

Alipurduar, Bankura, Birbhum, Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling, Hooghly, Howrah, Jalpaiguri, Jhargram, Kalimpong, Kolkata, Malda, Murshidabad, Nadia, North 24 Parganas, Paschim Bardhaman, Paschim Medinipur, Purba Bardhaman, Purba Medinipur, Purulia, South 24 Parganas, Uttar Dinajpur, Tangra, Haldia, Bilkanda, Bajitpur, Rameshwerpur, Barrackpore, Dasnagar, Bagh, Dankunibil, Nandal, Sahalalpur, Domjur, Rajhat, Tegharia, Narendra Chandra Dutta Sarani, Chandni Chawk, B.B.D. Bagh,Bowbazar, Maheshtala, Asansol, Belghoria, Tikiapara, 

East Sikkim, North Sikkim, South Sikkim, West Sikkim, Gangtok, Mangan, Namchi, Geyzing.

Bokaro, Chatra, Deoghar, Dhanbad, Dumka, East Singhbhum, Garhwa, Giridih, Godda, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Jamtara, Khunti, Koderma, Latehar, Lohardaga, Pakur, Palamu, Ramgarh, Ranchi, Sahebganj, Seraikela, Simdega,West Singhbhum, Aditpapur, Gamharia, Ahirtoli, Tatisilwai, Gamharia, Hazaribagh, haranganj, Kumhartoli, Pandra, Bokaro Steel City, Argora, Delatoli, Medininagar, Dhanbad, Hatia, Jumala, Tensera, Tudupana, Kokar, Namkum, Tatisilwai, Chapawar, Koilari, Sarwal, Kulhi, Burmu, Patratu, Barhi, Sikri, Daltonghanj, Koderma, Belchampa, Lohardagga, Barghi, Babhani, Sikri, Belchampa.

Baksa, Barpeta, Biswanath, Bongaigaon, Cachar, Charaideo, Chirang, Darrang, Dhemaji, Dhubri, Dibrugarh, Dima Hasao, Goalpara, Golaghat, Hailakandi, Hojai, Jorhat, Kamrup Metropolitan, Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Karimganj, Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur, Majuli, Morigaon, Nagaon, Nalbari, Sivasagar, Sonitpur, South Salmara-Mankachar, Tinsukia, Udalguri, West Karbi Anglong, Silchar, North Guwahati, Bijni, Margherita, Barpeta Road, Sonari, Kharupetia, Dhekiajuli, Jagiroad, Guwahati, Lanka, Tezpur, Lumding, Amguri, Ambikapur, Chabua, Lakhipur, Gohpur, Jogighopa, Badarpur, Duliajan, Moran, Diphu, Hamren, Abhayapuri, Marigaon, Rangapara, New Bongaigaon Railway Colony, Bokajan, Mangaldai, Haflong, Numaligarh, Silchar Part-X, Doboka, Digboi Oil Town, Sibsagar, Biswanath Chariali, Dergaon, Bokokhat, Bilasipara, Silapathar, Dispur.

Changlang, East Kameng, East Siang, Lohit, Lower Subansiri, Papum-Pare, Tawang, Tirap, Upper Siang, Upper Subansiri, West Siang, Anjaw, Lower Dibang Vally, Kurung Kumey, Namsai, Ziro, West Kameng, Naharlagun, Papum Pare, Pasighat, Tezu, Basar, Itanagar, Roing, Khonsa, Doimukh, Namsai, Chimpu, Pasighat, Itanagar, Namsai. 

Dhalai, North Tripura, West Tripura, South Tripura, Ambassa, Kailasahar, Udaipur, Agartala, Khowai, Indranagar, Kanchanpur, Kailasahar.

Araria, Arwal, Aurangabad, Banka, Begusarai, Bhagalpur, Bhojpur, Buxar, Darbhanga, East Champaran, Gaya, Gopalganj, Jamui, Jehanabad, Khagaria, Kishanganj, Kaimur, Katihar, Lakhisarai, Madhubani, Munger, Madhepura, Muzaffarpur, Nalanda, Nawada, Patna, Purnia, Rohtas, Saharsa, Samastipur, Sheohar, Sheikhpura, Saran, Sitamarhi, Supaul, Siwan, Vaishali, West Champaran, Bettiah, Hajipur, Dumra, Arrah, Motihari, Bhabua, Bihar Sharif, Sasaram, Chhapra, Dumra,Sitamarhi, Piro, Jogbani, Bihariganj, Raxaul, Daudnagar, Hisua, Chakia, Nirmali, Motipur, Ramnagar, Asarganj, Ghoghardiha, Bikramganj, Dinapur Cantonment, Nokha, Dehri, Kanti, Jagdispur, Teghra, Jhanjharpur, Habibpur, Mairwa, Areraj, Dalsingh Sarai, Amarpur, Jamalpur, Dhaka, Barh, Masaurhi, Mohiuddinagar, Naugachhia, Maharajganj, Chhatapur, Forbesganj, Bihar, Rajgir, Marhaura, Chanpatia, Barhiya, Narkatiaganj, Lalganj, Jaynagar, Islampur, Phulwari, Ara, Bodh Gaya, Mokama, Colgong, Ghrounda, Deedarganj , Chhoti Pahari, Chapra, Hajipur, Mohanbariam, Madhopara, Gehumi, Kaghzi Mohalla.

East Garo Hills, East Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills,Ri Bhoi,South Garo Hills,West Khasi Hills, Williamnagar, Shillong, Jowai, Nongpoh , Baghmara, Tura, Nongstoin, West Garo Hills, Shillong Cantonment, Jawai, Nongthymmai.

Thoubal, Imphal East, Imphal West, Senapati, Ukhrul, Chandel, Churachandpur, Tamenglong, Nambol, Imphal, Jiribam, Bishnupur, Moreh, Kakching.

Aizawl, Kolasib, Lawngtlai, Lunglei, Mamit, Saiha, Serchhip, Champhai.

Dimapur, Kiphire, Kohima, Longleng, Mokokchung, Mon, Peren, Phek, Tuensang, Wokha, Zunheboto, Noklak.

West India

Ahmednagar, Akola, Amravati, Aurangabad,v Beed, Bhandara, Buldhana, Chandrapur, Dhule, Gadchiroli, Gondia, Hingoli, Jalgaon, Jalna, Kolhapur, Latur, Mumbai, Nagpur, Nanded, Nandurbar, Nashik, Osmanabad, Palghar, Parbhani, Pune, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sangli, Satara, Sindhudurg, Solapur, Thane, Wardha, Washim, Yavatmal, Kalamboli, Taloja, Vasai, Vashi, Mira Bhayandar, Bhiwandi, Ulhasnagar, Ambarnath, Panvel, Degaon , Kupwad, Waluj , Avadhan , Tarapur, Boisar, Pimpri, Chinchwad , Satpur, Ambad, Sinnar, Butibori, Kagal , Gokul Shirgaon, Shiroli, Akola, Mahad, Rabale, Turbhe, Kalyan, Chandrapur, Lote, Beed. Osnambad, Satna, Nagothane.

Ahmedabad, Amreli, Anand, Aravalli, Banaskantha, Bharuch, Bhavnagar, Botad, Chhota Udaipur, Dahod, Dang, Devbhoomi Dwarka, Gandhinagar, Gir Somnath, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Kutch, Kheda, Mahisagar, Mehsana, Morbi, Narmada, Navsari, Panchmahal, Patan, Porbandar, Rajkot, Sabarkantha, Surat, Surendranagar, Tapi, Vadodara, Valsad, Palanpur, Veraval, Bhuj, Lunavada, Rajpipla, Godhra, Himmatnagar, Vyara, Dahej, Sanand ,Vani, Vatwa, Dhandhuka, Dholka, Viramgam, Kathawada, Odhav, Naroda, Sankheda, Sankheda, Dabhoi, Ranoli, Limbda, Por Ramangamdi, Nandesari, Makarpura, Vaghodia, Savli, Thasra, Kapadwanj, Matar, Nadiad, Balasinor, Sojitra, Umreth, Petlad, Borsad, Khambat, V.U. Nagar, Bhat,Dehgam, Mansa, Ranasan, Gozaria, Pardi, Bhilad, Umbergaon, Sarigam , Vapi, Unai, Bilimora, Dhrol, Bhatia, Bhanvad, Jamkhambhalia, Arambhada, Kotda-Sangani, Paddhari, Malia, Jasdan, Bhaktinagar, Jetpur, Wankaner, Morbi, Dhoraji, Gondal, Rafaleshwar, Kuvadawa, Aji, Lodhika, Valod, Khatodara, Bardoli, Nizarm, Olpad, Katargam, Doswada, Pandesaram, Hazira, Sachin, Ichchapore, Jafrabad, Liliya, Rajula, Babra, Damnagar, Amrelim, Babra, Vallabhipur, Dhasa, Botad, Vitthalwadi, Shihor, Palitana, Mahuva, Shihor, Vertej, Alang, Chitra, Sihori, Ambaji, Radhanpur, Chandisar, Mundra, Madhapur, Anjar, Mandvi, Vagra, Jambusar, Hansot, Panoli, Nabipur, Dungari, Valia, Naldhari, Kanerao, Dodwada, Kondh, Atali-Kaladra, Ankleshwar, Jhagadia, Tilakwada, Sagbara, Dediapada, Rajpipla, Visavadar, Veraval, Sutrapada, Porbandar, Miyani, Sayla, Chotila, Lakhtar, Halvad, Thangadh, Dhangadhra, Limbdi, Bamanbore, Kukarwada, Balisana, Kheralu, Visnagar, Vijapur, Kalol, Kadi, Chhatral, Patan, Chanasma, Lanva, Sidhpur, Jambughoda, Shahera, Godhra, Halol, Devgadhbaria, Malpur, Idar, Modasa, Himatnagar, Talod, Pimpri, Rakhial, Odhav, Sarkhej, Dhanera, Alang,  Dharangadhra, Deea, Gandhidham, Karjan, Vartej, Kapadwanj, Pardi, Kanjari, Kaliawadi, Mithapur, Bhachau, Patan, Tapi, Sayla, Amroli.

North Goa, South Goa, Mapusa, Bicholim, Panaji, Bardez, Tiswadi, Bicholim, Sattari, Pernem, Mormugao, Ponda, Quepem, Margao and Dharbandora. Salcete, Sanguem,  Canacona, Bethora, Bicholim, Canacona, Colvale, Corlim, Cuncolim, Dharbandoda, Honda, Kakoda, Kundaim, Latambarcem, Madkaim, Mapusa, Margao Panchwadi, Pilerne, Pissurlem, Quittol, Sancoale, Sanguem, Shiroda, Thivim, Tuem,Verna, Pilerna, Porvorim, 

North India

Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur,Kullu,Lahaul & Spiti, Mandi, Shimla , Sirmaur, Solan, Una, Baddi, Sheetalpur , Sundar Nagar, Sirmour, Pataliyon, Una, Indora, Bari, Damtal, Mehatpur, Gagret, Parwano, Barotiwala, Shamshi, Nagrotu Bagwan,Sansar Pur Tera, Solan, Mandi, Hamirpur, Shogi, Raga-Ka-Bagh, Ambi, Taliwala, Keylong. 

Amritsar, Barnala, Faridkot, Fatehgarh Sahib, Firozpur, Fazilka, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana,, Moga, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Pathankot, Patiala, Rupnagar, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, Sangrur, Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar, Taran Taran, Dhilwan, Dasuya, Dinanagar, Karoran, Samrala, Malaut, Kurali, Mandi Gobindgarh,  Jaitu, Nabha, Payal, Balachaur, Muktsar, Moonak, Khamanon, Batala, Bassi Pathana, Guru Har Sahai, Bhadur, Sahnewal, Lalru, Sanaur, Longowal, Jagraon, Sardulgarh, Phillaur, Anandpur Sahib, Mohali, Nawanshahr, Banga, Dera Bassi, Bhikhi, Malerkotla, Doraha, Garhshankar, Kharar, Sirhind, Shahkot, Zirakpur, Khanna, Rampura, Ludhiana, Mansa, Dhuri, Makhu, Amloh, Urmar Tanda, Raman, Goraya, Jalandhar Cantonment, Hoshiarpur, Kartarpur, Bhuch, Malout, Rajpura, Kotkapura, Sunam, Giddarbaha, Dirba, Firozpur Cantonment, Dhariwal, Morinda, Naya Nangal, Hariana, Nakodar, Phagwara, Machhiwara, Ajnala, Sultanpur Lodhi, Tarn Taran, Maur, Zira, Alawalpur, Ghagga, Kot Kapura, Kapurthala, Pattran, Jalalabad, Bagh Purana, Bathinda, Nawashahr, Budhlada, Munak, Bhabat, Bhawanigarh, Abohar, Hajipur, Ahmedgarh, Sujanpur, Samana, Jalandhar, Sahib, Gurdaspur, Nangal,, Mukerian, Talwandi Bhai, Lehra Gaga.

Pithoragarh,Uttarkashi, Rishikesh Cantonment, Rishikesh, Dehradun, Bhim Tal, Mahua Kheraganj, Khatima, Kausani, Bageshwar, Kashipur, Sitarganj, Srinagar, Dehrakhas, Tehri, Haridwar, Narendranagar, Nainital, Vikasnagar, Kotdwara, Ramnagar, Masuri, Rurki, Roorkee, Udham Singh Nagar, Laksar, Kaladungi, Sultanpur, Almora, Manglaur, Kichha, Chamoli and Gopeshwar, Gadarpur, Chakrata, Champawat, Lalkuan, Rudraprayag, Rudrapur, Jaspur, Haldwani, Ranipur, Ranikhet, Pauri, Bazpur, Tanakpur, Chamoli, Pauri Garhwal.

Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Faridabad, Fatehabad, Gurugram, Hisar, Jhajjar, Jind, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Mahendragarh, Nuh, Palwal, Panchkula, Panipat, Rewari, Rohtak, Sirsa, Sonipat, Yamunanagar, Ladwa, Indri, Punahana, Siwani, Asandh, Raipur Rani, Ateli, Barwala, Kheri Sampla, Hodal, Ratiya, Kalka, Narayangarh, Uklana Mandi, Bahadurgarh, Tauru, Gohana, Rania, Pundri, Dharuhera, Ballabgarh, Pehowa, Gurgaon, Ghraunda, Tohana, Kanina, Narwana, Narnaund, Gannaur, Shahabad, Pinjaur, Dabwali, Chita, Samalkha, Hansi, Safidon, Taraori, Kharkhoda, Bawal, Thanesar, Kalanwali, Ellenabad, Loharu, Jagadhri, Radaur, Nilokheri, Maham, Kundli, Bilaspur, Sohna, Ambala Cantt, Narnaul, Farrukhnagar, Firozpur Jhirka, Julana, Beri,Ambala

Ringas, Sirohi, Jhalawar, Bhasawar, Khairthal, Didwana, Bari Sadri, Napasar, Chittorgarh, Kherwara Chhaoni, Kota, Ratangarh, Bharatpur, Barmer, Chhabra, Raisinghnagar, Pushkar, Mangrol, Kumbhalgarh, Bilara, Kuchaman, Chhoti Sadri, Sambhar, Suratgarh, Churu, Asind, Nawalgarh, Kankroli, Raipur, Rajgarh, Aklera, Devgarh, Dausa, Khetri, Pilani, Jaisalmer, Pali, Beawar, Ramgarh, Sangariya, Udpura, Pipar, Nimaj, Vijainagar, Abu Road, Bagru, Bundi, Shahpura, Indragarh, Sumerpur,Balotra, Baswa, Sunel, Gothra, Mount Abu, Surajgarh, Sujangarh, Pratapgarh, Ratan Nagar, Karauli, Dholpur, Chirawa, Bali, Marwar, Gangapur, Ladnun, Hindaun, Swaroopganj, Nathdwara, Deoli, Jhunjhunun, Rajsamand, Kapasan, Kishangarh, Rani, Nasirabad, Bhadra, Neemrana, Bandikui, Jaiselmer, Bikaner, Rawatbhata, Amet, Salumbar, Jhalrapatan, Falna, Rawatsar, Taranagar, Sagwara, Neem Ka Thana, Lakheri, Begun, Padampur, Dungarpur, Udaipur, Chomun, Basi, Phalodi, Pokaran, Bahror, Sardarshahr, Sikar, Jodhpur, Anupgarh, Lachhmangarh, Makrana, Chhipa Barod, Bhinmal, Kekri, Bari, Bhilwara, Jaitaran, Sriganganagar, Nawa, Kuchera, Alwar, Pilibanga, Mandawar, Kaman, Niwai, Pindwara, Jalore, Merta, Newa Talai, Sheoganj, Sojat Road, Hanumangarh, Sawai Madhopur, Ramganj Mandi, Fatehnagar, Kot Putli, Nokha, Nagar, Baran, Nohar, Bhawani Mandi, Ajmer, Nimbahera, Sojat, Malpura, Lalsot, Jaipur, Rajakhera, Bijoliya Kalan, Nagaur, Madanganj, Bhawri, Ganganagar, Raniwara, Mundwa, Sadulshahar, Sadri, Tijara, Phulera, Fatehpur, Banswara, Bhiwadi, Bayana, Sanchor, Tonk.

Aligarh, PrayagRaj, Ambedkar Nagar, Amroha, Auraiya, Azamgarh, Badaun, Bahraich, Ballia, Balrampur, Banda District, Barabanki, Bareilly, Basti, Bijnor, Bulandshahr, Chandauli(Varanasi Dehat), Chitrakoot, Deoria, Etah, Etawah, Faizabad, Farrukhabad, Fatehpur, Firozabad, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Hamirpur, Hapur District, Hardoi, Hathras, Jaunpur District, Jhansi, Kannauj, Kanpur Dehat, Kanpur Nagar, Kasganj, Kaushambi, Kushinagar, Lakhimpur Kheri, Lalitpur, Lucknow, Maharajganj, Mahoba, Mainpuri, Mathura, Mau, Meerut, Mirzapur, Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Pilibhit, Pratapgarh, Rae Bareli, Rampur, Saharanpur, Sant Kabir Nagar, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Sambhal, Shahjahanpur, Shamli, Shravasti, Siddharthnagar, Sitapur, Sonbhadra, Sultanpur, Unnao, Varanasi (Kashi), Allahabad, Amethi, Bagpat, Baheri, Bilsi, Bilaspur, Maghar, Chandausi, Mubarakpur, Palia Kalan, Sadabad, Sahanpur, Jalaun, Lakhimpur, Kurara, Anpara, Gopiganj, Chhata, Sandila, Harraiya, Jewar, Robertsganj, Ramkola, Khekra, Bharthana, Kiratpur, Fatehabad, Sikandra Rao, Jyotiba Phule Nagar, Nautanwa, Jhansi Cantonment, Chilkana Sultanpur, Bangarmau, Usawan, Jais, Tilhar, Fatehpur Chaurasi, Deoband, Khatauli, Rudarpur, Beswan, Kanpur, Tundla, Nawabganj, Kerakat, Jalalabad, Aliganj, Dibiyapur, Purdil Nagar, Sirsaganj, Orai, Biswan, Dhanaura, Shikarpur, Behat, Hasanpur, Sikandarabad, Gautam Buddh Nagar, Modinagar, Nihtaur, Chitrakut Dham, Nichlaul, Khamaria, Bikapur, Jalesar, Loni, Barhani, Musafirkhana, Jasrana, Jansath, Varanasi, Jalalpur, Vrindavan, Kota, Sikandra, Gajraula, Khalilabad, Beniganj, Sardhana, Babrala, Bahjoi, Kundarki, Puranpur, Siyana, Baraut, Phaphund, Agra, Rampura, Ramnagar, Muradnagar, Dhampur, Pilkhuwa, Najibabad, Bilsanda, Dudhinagar, Gola Gokarannath, Greater Noida, Mathura Cantonment, Bindki, Kosi Kalan, Ganj Muradabad, Nagina, Bhatpar Rani, Alapur, Prayagraj Cantonment, Mankapur, Manikpur, Sahaswan, Bilari, Chandpur, Varanasi Cantonment, Bisalpur, Faizabad Cantonment, Bidhuna, Aurangabad, Fatehgarh, Kalpi, Lalganj, Renukut, Bisauli, Dibai, Karhal, Bilhaur, Sherkot, Nakur, Rasra, Seohara, Safipur, Hapur, Daurala, Kishni, Anupshahr, Obra, Rath, Dasna, Tanda, Gunnaur, Barva Sagar, Konch, Mauranipur, Jaunpur, Kishanpur, Bareilly Cantonment, Thakurdwara, Shahganj, Kunda, Ayodhya, Bulandshahar, Mawana, Miranpur, Kanth, Kharkhoda, Budaun, Gursahaiganj, Bhinga, Colonelganj, Zamania, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Nagar, Chandauli, Sirsa, Bhadohi, Sidhpura, Rae Bareilly, Karnawal, Sarsawan, Noida, Gyanpur, Shikohabad, Bhongaon, Shahjahanpur Cantonment, Gangoh, Gokul, Khurja, Hata, Sahibabad, Patti, Gulaothi, Anandnagar, Fatehpur Sikri, Chunar, Ghosia Bazar, Mursan, Pahasu, Nizamabad, Agra Cantonment, Kheri, Hyderabad, Kairana, Banda, Dadri.

Balod, Baloda Bazar, Balrampur, Bastar, Bemetara, Bijapur, Bilaspur, Dantewada, Dhamtari, Durg, Gariaband, Janjgir-Champa, Jashpur, Kabirdham, Kanker, Kondagaon, Korba, Koriya, Mahasamund, Mungeli, Narayanpur, Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon, Sukma, Surajpur, Surguja, Pathalgaon, Dongragarh, Bilha, Kharsia, Saraipali, Mahendragarh, Tildanewra, Jashpurnagar, Champa, Khairagarh, Sarajpur, Bhatapara, Bagbahara, Kurud, Bhilai, Pendra, Baloda, Jagdalpur, Katghora, Sarangarh, Kawardha, Pithora, Ramanuj Ganj, Kumhari, Telgaon, Chirmiri, Bemetra, Kota, Ambikapur, Dongargaon, Sakti, Urla, Charoda.

Agar Malwa, Alirajpur, Anuppur, Ashoknagar, Balaghat, Barwan, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal, Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Dindori, East Nimar, Guna, Gwalior, Harda, Hoshangabad, Indore, Jabalpur, Jhabua, Katni, Mandla, Mandsaur, Morena, Narsinghpur, Neemuch, Niwari, Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Rewa, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Sheopur, Shivpuri, Sidhi, Singrauli, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Umaria, Vidisha, West Nimar, Agar, Khandwa, Khargone, Sukhlia, Loha Mandi, Pithampur, Palda, Narmadapuram, Lasudia , Budasa, Patan, Shahpur, Sonkatch, Pachmarhi, Birsinghpur, Depalpur, Bagli, Parasia, Maksi, Mau, Sarangpur, Malaj Khand, Garoth, Begamganj, Khetia, Machalpur, Barwani, Biaora, Joura, Shahpura, Maihar, Kailaras, Jawad, Multai, Mangawan, Anjad, Sagar Cantonment, Beohari, Jaora, Panagar, Gohad, Karera, Pipliya Mandi, Amarpatan, Gormi, Sihora, Barwaha, Jirapur, Khujner, Manasa, Pichhore, Rajpur, Rampura, Maheshwar, Manawar, Katangi, Bagh, Kotma, Babai, Nalkheda, Alot, Khirkiya, Sanchi, Sitamau, Gairatganj, Malhargarh, Shamgarh, Dabra, Ichhawar, Gadarwara, Vijayraghavgarh, Basoda, Bamaniya, Nagod, Dhamnod, Shujalpur, Rau, Nepa Nagar, Kukshi, Rahatgarh, Betul Bazar, Banda, Pipariya, Udaipura, Badnagar, Bina-Etawa, Mhow, Khajuraho, Amarwara, Berasia, Sendhwa, Mandleshwar, Khurai, Sultanpur, Khilchipur, Jabalpur G.C.F, Baraily, Sausar, Tarana, Malanpur, Jabalpur Cantonment, Badnawar, Petlawad, Bijuri, Timarni, Sironj, Sohagpur, Mandideep, Kareli, Tekanpur, Harsud, Bhainsdehi, Pandhurna, Ashta, Hanumana, Ratlam Kasba, Khategaon, Itarsi, Kasrawad, Ganjbasoda, Chanderi, Rampur Baghelan, Bina Railway Colony, Kurwai, Sanawad, Chichli, Kothi, Nagda, Baihar, Indergarh,,

South India

Perundurai, Thirumazhisai, Melur, Cuddalore, Theni Allinagaram, Kallakkurichi, Sayapuram, Agaram, Sivakasi, Thiruvithankodu, Maraimalai Nagar, Madhavaram, Vadalur, Musiri, Pudukkottai , Kundrathur, Srivaikuntam, Surandai, Bargur, Sholinganallur, Kodambakkam, Palladam, Mulanur, Punjaipugalur, Kelambakkam, Minambakkam, Pennagaram, Kotagiri, Jalakandapuram, Hosur, Bhavani, Tiruchchendur, Punjai Thottakurichi, Vadakarai Kizhpadugai, Ettaiyapuram, Ganapathipuram, Panruti, Ramapuram, Arcot, Vaniyambadi, Mudukulathur, Dhalavoipuram, Gingi, Kadayal, Ayyampettai, Natrampalli, Anaimalai, Kallidaikurichchi, Vadamadurai, Karaikkudi, Pernambut, Kamayagoundanpatti, Vijayapuri, Palayamkottai, Minjur, Thanjavur, Attur, Neyveli, Gandhi Nagar, Dharmapuri, Maduranthakam, Ulundurpettai, Auroville, Vaithiswarankoil, Paramakkudi, Kolachal, Kangayam, Kamuthi, Usilampatti, Vadakku Valliyur, Aralvaimozhi, Belur, Kadathur, Kariamangalam, Inam Karur, Odaiyakulam, Nagapattinam, Udankudi, Arimalam, Mallapuram, Pattiviranpatti, Tirupur, Kaliyakkavilai, Iluppur, Coonoor, Kariapatti, Uttamapalaiyam, Dharapuram, Annur, Vasudevanallur, Ariyalur, Kulithalai, Avadi, Manapparai, Ambasamudram, Tharangambadi, Athanur, Rameswaram, Taramangalam, Sankarankoil, Udagamandalam, Natham, Theni, Kumbakonam, Vellakoil, Kumarapuram, Mayiladuthurai, Alwar Tirunagari, Thiruvalam, Zamin Uthukuli, Coimbatore, Nasiyanur, Chennai, Namakkal, Pallipalaiyam, Vandavasi, Kelamangalam, Kottur, Madurai, Tiruvottiyur, Idappadi, Kalavai, Tiruvallur, Thirunirmalai, Mahabalipuram, Alangulam, Gudiyattam, Vikravandi, Perambalur, Singaperumalkoil, Kovilpatti, Vengavasal, Vilapakkam, Anthiyur, Karumathampatti, Thiruporur, Swamimalai, Madukkarai, Arantangi, Manavalakurichi, Pammal, Urapakkam, Valangaiman, Nagercoil, Singampuneri, Madippakkam, Kinathukadavu, Tirumangalam, Mangadu, Tirupattur, Harur, Puliyankudi, Pollachi, Thuthipattu, Perungalathur, Dindigul, Omalur, Komarapalayam, Thiruvarur, Parangippettai, Kambam, Pallipattu, Acharapakkam, Peraiyur, Sirumugai, Rasipuram, Srirangam, Virudhachalam, Adyar, Thisayanvilai, Polur, Vandalur, Nanguneri, Sattur, Tiruchengode, Aruppukkottai, Kuzhithurai, Kunnathur, Tindivanam, Devakottai, Alangudi, Uthangarai, Kottakuppam, Ranipet, Sankari, Sathyamangalam, Nallur, Sholingur, Tiruverambur, Sirkali, Ramanathapuram, Kolathur, Nannilam, Athani, Karur, Chennimalai, Kattuputhur, Salem, Sivagiri, Nilgiris, Kaveripattinam, Gobichettipalayam, Periyakulam, Cheyyar, Ambur, Chinalapatti, Papanasam, Tiruvannamalai, Aravakurichi, Mallur, Chinna Salem, Sivaganga, Erode, Udumalaipettai, Anakaputhur, Palakkodu, Arni, Maduravoyal, Virudhunagar, Kattumannarkoil, Pudukkottai, Tirupathur, Lalgudi, Tenkasi, Thondamuthur, Chennasamudram, Tirukkoyilur, Arakonam, Sulur, Melvisharam, Kollankoil, Chengalpattu, Ooty, Thiruthangal, Kalugumalai, Udayarpalayam, Krishnagiri, Gummidipoondi, Chembarambakkam, Peravurani, Tiruverkadu, Kayalpattinam, Punjai Puliyampatti, Tuticorin, Kalpakkam, Gangavalli, Srimushnam, Pattukkottai, Saravanampatti, Vilathikulam, Denkanikottai, Muthupet, Thirumalayampalayam, Guduvanchery, Chatrapatti, Madanur, Thuvakudi, Arani, Bhuvanagiri, Perungudi, Kanchipuram, Kodaikanal, Karamadai, Kanyakumari, Mukkudal, Huligal, Nellikkuppam, Panapakkam, Uthiramerur, Shenkottai, Kilvelur, Nilakkottai, Mettur, Kanakkampalayam, Mamallapuram, Gudalur, Thirunindravur, Puliyur, Tiruchirappalli, Uttukkuli, Villupuram, Mannargudi, Nerkunram, Tirunelveli, Manachanallur, Thottiyam, Walajapet, Ponneri, Kumarapalayam, Porur, Jayankondam, Mettupalayam, Valavanur, Vedaranniyam, Vriddhachalam, Srivilliputtur, Pappireddipatti, Orathanadu, Kadayanallur, Manamadurai, Puzhal, Palani, Edaikodu, Annavasal, Adiramapattinam, Oddanchatram, Avinashi, Mylapore, Valasaravakkam, Mattur, Pandamangalam, Chidambaram, Katpadi, Thevaram, Elayirampannai, Sriperumpudur, Madambakkam, Chinnammanur, Bodinayakkanur, Virakeralam, Thiruthuraipundi, Kilakarai, Rajapalayam, Vellore, Kallakurichi, Kanniyakumari, Thoothukudi, Tiruppur, Tiruvarur, Viluppuram, Ambattur, Parrys, Broadway, Guindy, Madhavaram, Padi, Sriperumbudur, Injambakkam, Mudichur, Park town, Sowcarpet, , Vadapalani, Teynampet, Velachery, Mannivakkam Perambur, Thuraipakkam, Tondiarpet.


Adilabad, Bhadradri Kothagudem, Hyderabad, Jagitial, Jangaon, Jayashankar Bhupalapally, Jogulamba Gadwal, Kamareddy, Karimnagar, Khammam, Kumarambheem Asifabad, Mahabubabad, Mahabubnagar, Mancherial district, Medak, Medchal–Malkajgiri, Mulugu, Nagarkurnool, Narayanpet, Nalgonda, Nirmal, Nizamabad, Peddapalli, Rajanna Sircilla, Ranga Reddy, Sangareddy, Siddipet, Suryapet, Vikarabad, Wanaparthy, Warangal Rural, Warangal Urban, Yadadri Bhuvanagiri, Adilabad, Kothagudem, Bhupalpalle, Gadwal, Asifabad, Mancherial, Shamirpet, Sircilla, Shamshabad, Warangal, Bhongir, Secunderabad, Ranigunj, Yellandu, Medchal, Manuguru, Palwancha, Patancheru, Ranga Reddy district, Miryalaguda, Sathupalle, Ramagundam, Bhainsa, Armoor, Narsampet, Ghatkesar, Jagtial, Zahirabad, Koratla, Tandur, Kodada, Gajwel, Bodhan, Sarapaka, Bhadrachalam.

Anantapur, Chittoor, East Godavari, Guntur, Kadapa, Krishna, Kurnool, Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore, Prakasam, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, West Godavari, Kakinada, Machilipatnam, Nellore, Ongole, Eluru, Renigunta, Hukumpeta, Chirala, Rajam, Markapur, Kurmannapalem, Suriapet, Madanapalle, Mancheral, Razam, Kanigiri, Pendurthi, Palmaner, Mandapeta, West Godavari Dist., Alampur, Dharmavaram, Narsapur, Tadepalligudem, Pedana, Avanigadda, Ramachandrapuram, Tirvuru, Nandigama, Tadpatri, East Godavari Dist., Peddapuram, Qutubullapur, Gopalapatnam, Uppal Kalan, Bestavaripeta, Pamur, Sirsilla, Pedagantyada, Guti, Puttur, Rameswaram, Kamalapuram, Nagari, Chimakurthy, Kavali, Rajampet, Bapatla, Turangi, Anakapalle, Jammalamadugu, Proddatur, Srikalahasti, Dhone, Penugonda, Narasaraopet, Amur, Tirumala, Vetapalem, Tiruchanur, Palasa, Tuni, Guntakal, Amalapuram, Garacharma, Nandyal, Punganuru, Kuppam, Hindupur, Yemmiganur, Gudur, Sirpur, Rajendranagar, Choutuppal, Salur, Tekkali, Vemalwada, Narayanavanam, Bobbili, Sattenapalle, Mandasa, Gudivada, Adoni, Pulivendla, Chilakaluripet, Uravakonda, Kollapur, Prasantinilayam, Atmakur, Badvel, Trimulgherry, Tenali, Bhimavaram, Nuzvid, Chandur, Karnul, Cuddapah, Kazipet, Ravulapalam, Marturu, Betamcherla, Sulurpeta, Yadagirigutta, Pakala, Nidadavole, Godavarikhani, Repalle, Cumbum, Gannavaram, Nayudupeta, Narsipatnam, Tirupati, Rajahmundry, Palakole, Ajjaram, Samalkot, Kamareddi, Pithapuram, Vijayawada, Chinagantyada, Bapulapadu, Chodavaram, Tanuku, Macherla, Challapalle, Kadiri, Mahabubnagar, Yellamanchili, Akividu, Jaggayyapeta, Gajuvaka, Vinukonda, Kovvur, Singarayakonda, Seetharampuram, Kovur, Andole, Mangalagiri.

Bangalore / Bengaluru , Hubli, Belgaum , Mysuru / Mysore, Shivamogga, Gulbarga, Tumakuru, Davangere, Udupi, Ballari, Bidar, Dharwad , Hampi, Biljapur, Chitradurga, Badami, Hassan, Hosapete, Chikmaglur, Raichur, Gadag, Madikeri, Srirangapatna, Mandya, Bhadravathi, Bagalkot, Karwar, Belur, Uttara Kannada, Pattadakal, Gangavathi, Halebidu, Ranebennur, Hassan, Kolar, Dandeli, Gulbarga, Sringeri, Robertsonpet, Bijapur, Aihole, Manipal, Gadag, Devanahalli, Koppal, Kolar, Manipal, Doddaballapur, Sakleshpur, Karkala.

Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Tirvandrum, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Kollam, Kannur, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Palakkad, Munnar , Varkala , Thalassery, Kovalam, Kasaragod, Aluva, Perinthalmanna, Pathanamthitta, chalakuddy, Thodupuzha, Punalur, Tirur, Guruvayur, Kodungallur, Thiruvalla, Malappuram, Muvattupuzha, Kumarakom, Kollam, Tripunithura, Nilambur, Adoor, Kalpetta, Cherthala, Chegannur, Vadakara, Kayamkulam, Ottapalam, Kottarakkara, Vaikom, Ponnani, Kanhangad, Changanacherry, Mattancherry, Kothamangalam, Kalamassery, Koyilandy, Pala, Chavakkad, Perumbavoor, Beypore

Union territories OF India

Anantnag, Bandipore, Baramulla, Budgam, Doda, Ganderbal, Jammu, Kathua, Kishtwar, Kulgam, Kupwara, Poonch, Pulwama, Rajauri, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Shopian district, Srinagar, Udhampur, Leh, Kargil, Kishtwar, Shupiyan, Ganderbal,Kartholi, Lassipora, Rangreth, Sopore, Shalteng, Lassipora, Ghatti, Budgam, Trikuta Nagar, Bakshi Nagar, Bishnah, Digiana, Kothi Bagh.

Central Delhi, North Delhi, South Delhi, East Delhi, North East Delhi, South West Delhi, New Delhi, North West Delhi, West Delhi, South Eest Delhi, Daryaganj, Sadar Bazaar, Saket, Preet Vihar, Shahdara, Palam, Connaught Place, Kanjhawala, Rajouri Garden, Defence Colony,Ajmeri Gate, Rohini, Nawada, Anand Parbat, Mundka.

South Andaman, North And Middle Andaman, Nicobars, Portblair, Mayabunder, Car Nicobar, Garacharma, Pahargaon,Pathergudda, Junglighat.

Kavaratti, Agethi

Daman, Diu, Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Naroli, Dabhel, Silvassa.

Karaikal, Mahe, Pondicherry, Yanam, Kurumbapet, Manavely, Ozhukarai, Thirumalairayanpattinam, Villianur, Puducherry. 


Nano hydroxyapatite powders

Fullerenes Powder


MWCNTs Powder

Related Products

Hydroxyapatite Powder

AIMTITE Hydroxyapatite powder is a synthetic micro Hydroxyapatite powder generally of spherical shape. For the most part, these are most suited for application in 3D printing, Thermal spraying, Plasma Spraying, bone coating, bone repair & bone filling & synthetic bone substitute. Usually, the average particle size is in microns to mm. Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] is an example of a bio-ceramic inorganic compound with a chemical composition similar to the bone. Hydroxyapatite is used especially as a bioactive coat on metallic implants & all the more it increases the bone & consequently the implant surface.

For 3D Printing:

The 3D printing of neat hydroxyapatite scaffolds is as a matter of fact difficult to obtain. To obtain target-specific scaffolds hydroxyapatite is either processed with sacrificial materials like polymers or other materials like ceramics or bioactive glass. Moreover, binders like polyacrylamide, PVA, sodium polyacrylate, maltodextrin, etc. thus are used. The 3D constructed components have controlled architecture and porosity. The hydroxyapatite “ink” can be cell-free or have cell-encapsulated materials. Various techniques & moreover, for example, β – Tricalcium phosphate, Calcium sulfate, silk-fibroin, graphene, CNTs etc. have been used to fabricate hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

Thermal Spraying Hydroxyapatite, [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2], is used in biomedical applications including orthopedic device, dental replacements, tissue engineering & bioactive coating. Hydroxyapatite is used regularly for coating either metallic implants of SS316L or Titanium or Ti6Al4V due its excellent biocompatibility & bioactivity.

Hydroxyapatite stimulates strong a bond between metal & bone. Moreover, Hydroxyapatite coating shields the release of metallic ions of the implant into the body. Thermal spraying is an FDA-approved method for coating biomedical implants. 

For Thermal Spraying:

Thermal Spraying Uses:


low flame temperature & high flow velocity of hydroxyapatite particles. For example, typical spray parameters for coating hydroxyapatite on implants are as follows & usually will vary according to the type of equipment & the hydroxyapatite used:

  • Acetylene flow rate: 70 – 75 Lit/minute
  • Oxygen flow rate: 40 – 45 Lit/minute
  • Air pressure: 4 – 5 kg/cm2
  • Powder feed rate: 15 gm/minute
  • Spray distance: About 10 cm

Thermal spraying-based techniques produce thick coatings of several tens of micrometers, even though the use of a feedstock as a solution or suspension can result in thinner coatings (5 to 10 μm) when compared with thermal spraying when using dry powders.

Knee implants – Hydroxyapatite coatings have also been used in un – cemented knee prostheses, with coatings applied by plasma spraying to the femoral &/or tibial components. These have more than 20 years of clinical use. For un-cemented hips, the use of un-cemented knee prostheses is generally, for most part, recommended for younger patients (< 60 years).

Plasma-Spray Method is above all used for coating o dental & orthopedic implants. A coating on Titanium or Ti6Al4V can be achieved using this method for the most part. Thinner films of hydroxyapatite ordinarily can be deposited on metal substrates using Suspension Plasma Spray (SPS).
Usually adding Titanium to Hydroxyapatite improves the bonding strength of the coating from about 14.5 to 17.3 MPa. Not to mention that an increase in the adhesion of the coating layer to the implant can be observed if Titanium content increases.

Hydroxyapatite reinforced with 10%w/w of a mix of 80Al2O3 +20TiO2 on Ti6Al4V, moreover, enhances adhesion strength in this case to above 32 MPa.

Sol-Gel Dip Coating Method for applying hydroxyapatite layers involves the formation of Sol-Gel using Calcium Nitrate & Phosphorus pentoxide or triethyl phosphate using aqueous or alcoholic solvents for the most part. Moreover, this is followed by dipping the substrate into the sol-gel over time. It is simply subsequently withdrawn & then dried.

This process is thus simple, fast, cheap & in particular, allows uniform deposition of hydroxyapatite onto complex surfaces at low temperatures.

Electrochemical The electrochemical Deposition Method in particular allows progressive nucleation & growth of hydroxyapatite coat. This leads to a demonstrably homogenous deposition, controlled thickness & reduced decomposition of the hydroxyapatite layer. Besides, Cathodic deposition systems used are either Electrophoretic or Electrolytic.

Likewise, Graphite or Platinum are used as anodes. Hydroxyapatite can additionally be combined with CNTs, ZrO2, TiO2, etc. to achieve better properties. The following table is guidance, comparing electrodeposition methods drawn from various references.

High-Velocity Suspension Plasma Spraying (HVSPS) Method for coating metal substrates, by all means, enhances bioactivity, prevents wearing & corrosion of implants as well as controls the release of harmful metal ions in the body. This method is especially widely used.
The High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) allows for the formation of a suspension spraying layer. In the same manner, the high velocity of powders allows the formation of a uniform protective coat with low porosity.
Fine or Nano Powders of Hydroxyapatite can be thermally sprayed directly using plasma or gas jets. Aqueous medium &/or Diethylene Glycol suspensions of hydroxyapatite can also be used. Additionally, the coating produced does not delaminate from the substrate significantly.

Application of AimtiteAverage Particle Sizes (μm)
3D Printing15 100 200
Thermal Spraying15 50 100 – 150
Bone Coating50
Bone Repair200 3mm
Bone Filling3mm
Application of AimtiteAverage Particle Sizes (μm)
3D Printing15 100 200
Thermal Spraying15 50 100 – 150
Bone Coating50
Bone Repair200 3mm
Bone Filling3mm

XRD of Hydroxyapatite for Thermal Spraying

XRD of Hydroxyapatite for Thermal Spraying
XRD of Hydroxyapatite for Thermal Spraying table

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Industrial Grades for Ceramic Coating

Ceramic coated pipes are a revolutionary addition to the world of plumbing and fluid transport. Here’s some information about them:

What are Ceramic Coated Pipes? Ceramic coated pipes are metal pipes that have been treated with a ceramic layer. This ceramic layer is created through a process called thermal spraying, where a ceramic material is heated until it becomes molten, then sprayed onto the pipe’s surface where it solidifies and bonds with the metal.

Benefits of Ceramic Coated Pipes

  1. Corrosion Resistance: The ceramic coating provides excellent protection against corrosion, extending the life of the pipe.
  2. Heat Resistance: Ceramic materials are known for their ability to withstand high temperatures, making these pipes ideal for applications involving hot fluids or gases.
  3. Abrasion Resistance: The hard ceramic surface reduces wear and tear from abrasive materials, making these pipes suitable for transporting solids like sand or coal.
  4. Improved Flow: The smooth ceramic surface can improve fluid flow by reducing friction.

Applications of Ceramic Coated Pipes Ceramic coated pipes are used in a variety of industries, including oil and gas, mining, power generation, and chemical processing. They are particularly useful in situations where pipes are exposed to corrosive substances, high temperatures, or abrasive materials.

In conclusion, ceramic coated pipes offer a durable and efficient solution for many industrial applications. Their superior performance characteristics can lead to cost savings over time due to reduced maintenance and replacement costs. Whether it’s for a small-scale plumbing project or a large industrial operation, ceramic coated pipes are a smart choice for reliable and long-lasting fluid transport.


Protects the pipe externally from extreme corrosive conditions, including seawater.

Provides insulation by not allowing heat/cold to get transferred to the atmosphere etc.

The coating can resist very high temperatures & does not peel off.

Thin coat does not increase weight of the pipes.

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